Academic Catalog 2021–2022

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Pharmacy Courses

PHA202 Medical Anatomy and Physiology

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course covers the anatomy and physiology of the human body with emphasis on the skeletal and muscular systems, central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, cardiovascular and renal systems, immune, endocrine, gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems. A thorough understanding of homeostatic regulation of bodily functions and a discussion of imbalances to homeostasis are covered. Congenital malformations and their physiological impacts and clinical connections are also discussed. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical connections within each system.

Prerequisite: BIO201 General Biology I

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 1 status

PHA204 Computer Application to Pharmacy

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course allows students to use computers efficiently for educational, academic and professional problem solving. It introduces students to computer terminology, hardware peripherals, programs and multimedia computing systems. It also covers the literature resources and evaluations in preparation to the pharmacy professional years. Materials covered for literature evaluation are on-line information resources and databases.

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 1 status

PHA205 Statistics for Health Profession Majors

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course covers descriptive and inferential statistics as they related to design of biomedical and biopharmaceutical investigations. Students are introduced to methods of data summarization and presentation techniques. Different probability distributions are covered including binomial, z, and t. Methods of confidence interval building are addressed. Testing hypothesis is also covered for different designs, as well as issues related to errors and power.

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 1 status

PHA208 Medical Biochemistry

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course covers the chemistry and metabolism of biomolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA) and metabolic pathway to energy utilization. Particular emphasis is placed on the biochemical basis for disease, and targets and therapeutic intervention.

Prerequisites: BIO201 General Biology I, CHM205 Fundamentals in Chemistry, CHM311 Organic Chemistry I, CHM312 Organic Chemistry II, CHM313 Organic Chemistry I Lab, and CHM314  Organic Chemistry II Lab

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 2 status

PHA209 Principles of Pathophysiology and Immunology

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course covers the pathophysiologic processes of cellular and tissue death, inflammation, infection, the pathophysiology of genetic as well as environmental and nutritional disorders. Alterations in cellular proliferation and differentiation (cancer) and hemodynamic and blood cell disorders are covered.  An extensive description of the immune system structure and function are also covered and followed by discussions of immunologic disorders. Pertinent laboratory data and diagnostic approaches are studied wherever applicable. Interrelation between the various pathologic processes are explored and explained. Case studies are presented for each system to illustrate the clinical connections.

Prerequisite: PHA202 Medical Anatomy & Physiology

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 2 status

PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course is a continuation of PHA209 Principles of Pathophysiology & Immunology. It covers the pathologies and disorders that affect the human body in its various systems. It discusses disease processes, etiologies and symptoms, as well as diagnostic modalities, the interpretation of relevant laboratory data, with an introduction to the basic pharmacology and the treatment of major diseases of the various bodily systems.  The course consists of lectures, discussions and case presentations.

Prerequisites: PHA202 Medical Anatomy & Physiology and PHA209 Principles of Pathophysiology & Immunology

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 2 status

PHA211 Microbiological Basis of Disease

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course provides a foundation in basic microbiology with an emphasis on infectious diseases. Students are expected to gain knowledge of the various characteristics of microorganisms in general, and the specific characteristics of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Topics covered include the different aspects of medical microbiology, identification and control of pathogens, disease transmission, host resistance, immunity, control of infection, and development of microbiological techniques.

Prerequisite: BIO201 General Biology I

Co-requisite: Pre-Professional Year 2 status

PHA308 Pharmaceutical Analysis and Biotechnology

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course provides an introduction to biotechnology and its application in a variety of medical, clinical and science disciplines. Fundamental principles of recombinant DNA technology are presented with an emphasis on pharmaceutical applications where appropriate. The course also introduces the principles and techniques of spectroscopy and chromatography used in pharmaceutical analysis.

Prerequisite: PHA208 Medical Biochemistry

Co-requisites: PHA309 Pharmaceutical Analysis & Biotechnology Lab and Professional Year 1 status

PHA309 Pharmaceutical Analysis and Biotechnology Lab

[0–3, 1 cr.]

This is a laboratory course taken concurrently with the PHA308 Pharmaceutical Analysis & Biotechnology course.

Prerequisite: PHA208 Medical Biochemistry

Co-requisites: PHA308 Pharmaceutical Analysis & Biotechnology and Professional Year 1 status

PHA312 Medicinal Chemistry I

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course covers the physicochemical properties of various drug categories, their relationship to biological activity, metabolic pathways, structure-activity relationship and their adverse effects.

Prerequisites: CHM312 Organic Chemistry II and CHM314 Organic Chemistry II Lab

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course is a continuation to PHA312 Medicinal Chemistry I.

Prerequisite: PHA312 Medicinal Chemistry I

Co-requisite: Professional year 1 status

PHA314 Dosage Forms I

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course covers the design, formulation, manufacturing and evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms, based on physical chemical principles. Drug regulatory affairs, current good manufacturing practices, compliance with FDA guidelines and standards, pre-formulation studies, formulations of solids, liquids, and aerosols are discussed.

Co-requisites: PHA315 Dosage Forms I Laboratory and Professional Year 1 status

PHA315 Dosage Forms I Laboratory

[1–2, 1 cr.]

This laboratory course is taken concurrently with the PHA314 Dosage Forms I course. Techniques and principles used to prepare and dispense individual extemporaneous prescriptions, including calculations and labeling of compounded dosage forms are covered. The course also addresses compounding aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, powders and granules, capsules and lozenges.

Co-requisites: PHA314 Dosage Forms I and Professional Year 1 status

PHA316 Dosage Forms II

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course is a continuation of PHA314 Dosage Forms I. The course deals with the design, formulation, manufacturing and evaluation of semi-solid, complex, and novel pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Prerequisite: PHA314 Dosage Forms I

Co-requisites: PHA317 Dosage Forms II Laboratory and Professional Year 1 status

PHA317 Dosage Forms II Laboratory

[1–2, 1 cr.]

This laboratory course is taken concurrently with the PHA316 Dosage Forms II course. It deals with the formulation, preparation, handling and evaluation of colloidal dispersions, suspensions, emulsions, ointments, creams, suppositories, ophthalmic, otic and nasal preparations, and other topical products.

Co-requisites: PHA316 Dosage Forms II and Professional Year 1 status

PHA320 Physical Assessment

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course is a combination of didactic lectures and concurrent workshops that serve the monitoring of drug therapy and the evaluation of the patient’s response to the prescribed treatment by describing experienced difficulty or adverse effects from the medications. The lectures feature how to interview a patient and perform a thorough assessment of body systems and regions. The workshops include practice on appropriate tools, equipment and techniques.

Prerequisites: PHA209 Principles of Pathophysiology & Immunology and PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA322 Professional Communication

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This course prepares students to interview, counsel and respond to patients in an empathetic and understanding manner within the framework of shared decision-making. The course allows students to establish a therapeutic relationship with patients by understanding the emotional and psychological aspects of illness that patients often experience and to review one’s own communication with patients, caregivers or other healthcare professionals, and provide constructive and objective feedback to other classmates regarding their own interview.

Prerequisites: ENG202 Advanced Academic English and COM203 Art of Public Communication

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA325 Pharmacy Practice and Ethics

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course provides a study of the profession of pharmacy, emphasizing the ethical principles upon which the profession rests. The nature and place of pharmaceutical services in society are considered, and the moral standards and professional conduct required of a pharmacist are emphasized. The course includes Lectures and ethics cases using problem-based learning.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA330 Pharmacology I

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course is designed to introduce the principles of drug use.  It emphasizes the drug-receptor relationship, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of various categories of drugs.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology and PHA312 Medicinal Chemistry I

Co-requisites: PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II and Professional Year 1 status

PHA333 Pharmacy Management

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course is an introduction to pharmacy management, as applied to various pharmacy practice settings.

Co-requisite: Professional Year I status

PHA340 Pharmacotherapeutics I

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This is the first in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders and their clinical applications. In-class discussions use a case- and/or problem-solving approach with emphasis on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. The pharmacotherapies of select topics on headache, sleep disorders and substance abuse are also discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA312 Medicinal Chemistry I, and PHA320 Physical Assessment 

Co-requisites: PHA330 Pharmacology I and Professional Year 1 status

PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course provides pharmacy students with aspects of practical experiences in selected Community Pharmacy Management Settings under the supervision of pharmacists and preceptors. It focuses on community pharmacy management approaches, organizational principles, personnel, purchasing and inventory control, pricing, para-pharmaceutical products, and pharmacy services in accordance with the Lebanese law. 

Prerequisite: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, PHA322 Professional Communication, PHA325 Pharmacy Practice & Ethics, PHA330 Pharmacology I, PHA333 Pharmacy Management, and PHA340 Pharmacotherapeutics I

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA421 Drug Information and Literature Evaluation

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course provides students with learning opportunities on using different reference sources to retrieve, evaluate, and disseminate information in pharmacy practice. Fundamentals of research design, methodology and analysis in practicing evidence-based medicine are also covered to help students assess the significance of reported data and conclusions.

Prerequisites: PHA205 Statistics for Health Profession Majors and PHA330 Pharmacology I

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA422 Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course entails the study and application of the fundamental concepts of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The effects of drug formulation, diseases and diet on drug pharmacokinetics as well as the principles of bioavailability and bioequivalence are discussed.

Prerequisite: PHA316 Dosage Forms II

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA430 Pharmacology II

[4–0, 4 cr.]

This course is a continuation of PHA 330 Pharmacology I.

Prerequisites: PHA210, PHA211, PHA313 and PHA330

Corequisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA435 Pharmacognosy and Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course introduces the preparation and extraction of active ingredients and the identification and classification of medicinal plants. An explanation of the pharmacology and therapeutic uses of commonly used herbal medicines based on current scientific research is provided.

Prerequisite: PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This is the second in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of endocrine diseases and women’s health and their clinical applications. In-class discussions use a case- and/or problem-solving approach with emphasis on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. The pharmacotherapies related to obesity and select ophthalmic diseases are also discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, and PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I

Co-requisites: PHA430 Pharmacology II and Professional Year 2 status

PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This is the third in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of renal, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and their clinical applications. In-class discussions use a case- and/or problem-solving approach with emphasis on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. The pharmacotherapies of select diseases of the liver and immunologic diseases (SLE; rheumatic disorders) as well as acid-base disorders are also discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, and PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I

Co-requisites: PHA 430 Pharmacology II and Professional Year 2 status

PHA443 Pharmacotherapeutics IV

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This is the fourth in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of cardiovascular diseases and their clinical applications. In-class discussions use a case- and/or problem-solving approach with emphasis on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. The pharmacotherapies of select topics in dermatology (acne; psoriasis) are also discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I, and PHA430 Pharmacology II

Co-requisite:  Professional Year 2 status

PHA444 Pharmacotherapeutics V

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This is the fifth in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of infectious diseases and their clinical applications. Emphasis is on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. Active learning strategies and in-class discussions are used.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA211 Microbiological Basis of Disease, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I, and PHA430 Pharmacology II

Co-requisite:  Professional Year 2 status

PHA445 Pharmacotherapeutics VI

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This is the last in a sequence of courses that integrate the pathophysiology and therapeutics of diseases. The course focuses on the drug therapy of oncology diseases and treatment-related toxicology with their clinical applications. In-class discussions use a case- and/or problem-solving approach with emphasis on the individualization and appropriate selection of medication a drug regimen considering efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, monitoring parameters and therapeutic endpoints. Disease prevention and patient counseling are also addressed as applicable. The pharmacotherapies of select topics in geriatrics, men’s health and neurology are also discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA210 Systems Pathophysiology, PHA313 Medicinal Chemistry II, PHA316 Dosage Forms II, PHA320 Physical Assessment, PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I, and PHA430 Pharmacology II

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA449 Dispensing and Pharmaceutical Care

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course addresses the use and application of proper techniques and skills required to accurately and safely dispense drug products to patients in the community and hospital settings. Patient case discussions and counseling, proper use of nonprescription medications from the efficacy, safety and pharmaco-economic standpoints are included.

Prerequisites: PHA322 Professional Communication, PHA340 Pharmacotherapeutics I, PHA430 Pharmacology II, PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II, and PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III

Co-requisites: PHA443 Pharmacotherapeutics IV, PHA444 Pharmacotherapeutics V, PHA445 Pharmacotherapeutics VI, and Professional Year 2 status

PHA452 Toxicology

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course covers the fundamental and mechanistic aspects of toxicology, with emphasis on the mechanisms of toxicants, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and on the management of toxic exposures, and antidotal therapy.

Prerequisites: PHA330, PHA422 and PHA430

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA497 Introduction to Professional Pharmacy Practice Experience

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This course introduces the practice of pharmacy through structured early learning experience in different clinical settings under the supervision of pharmacists and preceptors. Lecture and workbook exercises are used to reinforce the fundamentals of clinical practice and serve as the foundation for the following experiential education experiences.

Prerequisites:  PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I, PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II, and PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA499 Pharmacy Practice Management II

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course provides practical experiences in selected Hospital Pharmacy Management environments under the supervision of pharmacists and preceptors. It focuses on management approaches and services provided in hospital pharmacies.

Prerequisites: PHA398 Pharmacy Practice Management I, PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II, and PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA510 U.S. Pharmacy Law and Regulation

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course covers the U.S. federal laws that affect the regulation of drugs and the practice of pharmacy. It allows students to recognize the general principles of federal and state laws of drug control and pharmacy practice.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA512 Lebanese Pharmacy Law and Regulation

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This course discusses the regulations of pharmacy practice in Lebanon, including the requirements and governing laws to be a licensed pharmacist in the country, start a community pharmacy practice, operate a hospital pharmacy, and licensure for drug manufacturing and importation.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA514 Pharmacoepidemiology

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course introduces the principles, concepts and application of epidemiology in the field of pharmacy, and reviews the most common data analysis techniques utilized according to study design. Concepts of causality, bias, confounding, as well as different measures of associations are covered. The course consists of lectures and assigned readings that provide students with the basic knowledge and tools relevant to pharmacoepidemiology. Topics relate to pharmacoepidemiological designs, pharmacovigilance, and post-marketing surveillance are also covered.

Prerequisite: PHA421 Drug Information & Literature Evaluation

Co-requisites: Professional Year 3 status

PHA523 Clinical Pharmacokinetics

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This course covers the application of pharmacokinetic principles for the rational design of individualized dosage regimen to achieve optimal drug concentrations, produce the desired therapeutic outcome, and minimize adverse and toxic drug effects. Examples are provided on clinical application of monitoring serum drug concentrations (e.g., aminoglycosides, carbamazepine, digoxin, lithium, phenytoin, vancomycin) and recommending dosage adjustment based on a medication half-life, volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and clearance, especially in patients with specific disease states (e.g., renal failure, burs, critical illness).

Prerequisites: PHA422 Pharmacokinetics & Biopharmaceutics

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA550 Introduction to Pharmacogenomics

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This course covers the relationship of genetic individual variability to drug response. It provides a comprehensive introduction to pharmacogenomics, allowing a thorough understanding of the relationship of genetic inter-individual variability to drug response. Ethical considerations related to the emerging key role of pharmacogenomics in drug development are also discussed.

Prerequisite: PHA430 Pharmacology II

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA558 Pharmacoeconomics

[2 cr.]

This course is an introduction to the role of pharmacoeconomics in the healthcare system. It provides a basic explanation of the tools needed to assess the costs and outcomes of medications and pharmaceutical care services and how to evaluate pharmacoeconomics studies.

Prerequisite: PHA421 Drug Information & Literature Evaluation

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA560 Clinical Nutrition & Diet Therapy

[2–0, 2 cr.]

This course provides basic knowledge of nutrients and the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of diseases. It also provides explanation of the pathological conditions of patients with nutrition-related chronic diseases and their specific nutritional management. Additionally, advanced evidence- and practice-based knowledge on formulating, designing, monitoring, and administering disease- and patient-specific parenteral and enteral nutrition are discussed.

Prerequisites: PHA340 Pharmacotherapeutics I, PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II, PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III, PHA443 Pharmacotherapeutics IV, PHA444 Pharmacotherapeutics V, and PHA445 Pharmacotherapeutics VI

Co-requisites: Professional Year 3 status

PHA567 Special Topics in Pharmacy

[1–0, 1 cr.]

PHA567B Special Topics - Public Health

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course introduces topics of public health as applicable to pharmacy. Topics address the leading causes of human death, measures of morbidity/mortality, outbreaks, health screening, major/common chronic diseases, and public health program planning and evaluation. Disease prevention, health promotion and determinants of human health are covered.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA567C Special Topics - Immunizations

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course is offered to first professional year (P1) students. It addresses vaccine-preventable diseases with emphasis on the role of the pharmacist as immunization advocate. 

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA567D Special Topics - Cosmeceuticals and Dermatology

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course addresses different skin problems, their treatment and prevention. It also provides a guide to individualized skin care.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA567G Special Topics - Career Opportunities

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course provides insights into different pharmacy career opportunities. Students review verbal and written communication skills that facilitate achieving personal and professional goals; discuss the importance of commitment to personal and professional development through mentorship, and portfolio development; and appreciate the role of emotional intelligence, change, professionalism and leadership in career advancement.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567I Special Topics – Critical Care

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course actively engages pharmacy students with select real-world patient cases in critical and emergency care settings. The primary focus is to develop general learning of select critical illnesses, and practice the application of pharmacists’ interventions.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA567J Special Topics – Geriatrics

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course introduces students to key principles of providing care to the elderly population.

Prerequisites: PHA441 Pharmacotherapeutics II and PHA442 Pharmacotherapeutics III

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567K Special Topics – Biostatistics application to informatics

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This is an elective introductory course to the application of biostatistics on informatics software, specifically the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The course guides students to conduct basic statistical data analysis and generate a report using advanced technology means. The course allows students to code and enter statistical data, generate a basic report after managing a dataset and performing data analysis, and evaluate the validity of generated conclusions based on the application to the datasets. 

Prerequisites: PHA205 Statistics for Health Profession Majors

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567M Special Topics – Introduction to Entrepreneurship

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course introduces the latest research in entrepreneurship and its practical implications. Students learn about the entrepreneurial process and the domain of entrepreneurship. Topics include an economic primer on entrepreneurial opportunities, their recognition and exploitation, as well as the environmental effects and differences in identity, the human and social capital of entrepreneurs. The course also provides insight on how entrepreneurs finance and grow their business ventures. Students also solve a pharmaceutical entrepreneurial case and develop a project on “pharmaceutical entrepreneurial business opportunity” where they practice identifying entrepreneurial opportunities, conducting feasibility analysis, and developing an effective business model.

Prerequisites: PHA333 Pharmacy Management

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567N Special Topics - Emergency Medicine

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective course actively engages students with select real-life problems encountered by pharmacists in the Emergency Department using active learning and simulation. The first two sessions of the course address medical emergencies and the role of the Emergency Department pharmacist as part of an interdisciplinary team. The other sessions consist of simulation scenarios followed by a debriefing and discussion on the evidence-based pharmacotherapy involved in various medical emergencies

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA567O1 Special Topics - Longitudinal Investigation Project Development

[1–0, 1 cr.]

The Student Investigation Project “Development” elective course allows pharmacy students to participate in the different project development steps of basic, translational, epidemiological and clinical research under the supervision of a faculty of the LAU School of Pharmacy. The course follows a longitudinal approach over the course of the professional pharmacy curriculum by involving pharmacy students in the phases of research project development (PHA567O1): literature search and analysis; writing the research proposal; submission to the University’s Institutional Review Board (IRB). Students will be evaluated based on their performance, contributions, quality of work, commitment, professionalism, and writing skills.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 1 status

PHA567O2 Special Topics - Longitudinal Investigation Project Implementation

[1–0, 1 cr.]

The Student Investigation Project “Implementation” elective course allows pharmacy students to participate in the different project implementation steps of basic, translational, epidemiological and clinical research under the supervision of a faculty member of the LAU School of Pharmacy. The course follows a longitudinal approach over the course of the professional pharmacy curriculum by involving P2 pharmacy students in the phases of research project implementation (PHA567O2): data collection, entry and analysis; and writing the research report. Students will be evaluated based on their performance, contributions, quality of work, commitment, professionalism, and writing skills.

Co-requisite: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567P Special Topics: Access to Medicine

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This elective will provide insights into key principles of access to innovative medicines despite the challenges that pharmaceutical companies are dealing when it comes to the field of pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals. Students will be familiar with pharmacy practice in the market access field and various related concepts such as industrial organization structure, product life cycle, reimbursement, value framework, collaboration with different stakeholders, cost-effectiveness and cost-containment rationales, and role of patient to facilitate and optimize access to innovative medicine.

Prerequisite: PHA325 Pharmacy Practice and Ethics

Co-requisites: Professional Year 2 status

PHA567Q Special Topics: Palliative Care

[1–0, 1 cr.]

This is an introductory course in which students will learn about the basic principles of palliative care. This course will lay the foundation for effective communication with patients, families, and colleagues. Students will also familiarize themselves with the psychological, emotional, social, cultural and spiritual aspects of care in advanced illness, including grief, bereavement, and self-care. The second part of the course will focus on symptom management. A case-based learning model will be used in this part to master content. The students will follow one patient case from diagnosis until death and bereavement.

Co-requisites: Professional Year 2 status

PHA570 Professional Pharmacy Practice – Hospital/Drug Information Experience

[0–6, 6 cr.]

This is a required five-week pharmacy practice experience that exposes the student to pharmacy practice in hospital settings through the provision of drug information to other healthcare providers. Students learn how to screen and intervene on hospital medication orders; learn about accreditation standards for hospital pharmacies, proper hospital pharmacy management, policies and procedures as well as drug distribution systems and patient-centered pharmacy services. Students participate in several hospital pharmacy activities such as preparing a drug monograph, answering drug information questions, assessing adverse drug reactions,   analyzing clinical trials, and participating in drug utilization reviews as per site requirements.

Prerequisite: Passing all the PHA courses from the professional years 1 and 2

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA571 Professional Pharmacy Practice – Community Experience

[0–6, 6 cr.]

This course provides opportunities to evaluate, analyze, and come up with a treatment plan after gathering all necessary information from patients and healthcare professionals and performing a literature review with emphasis on primary literature and treatment guidelines. Students apply professional communications skills acquired in previous courses and during their internship training in order to present patient cases and recommend treatment plans. Critical thinking is key in this course, where students have to analyze the collected patient information and defend their recommendations and thinking process. Students develop competency in each of the following pharmacy functions: Dispensing medication orders, OTC and herbal products; counseling; knowledge of drug generic and brand names available on the market, with their different dosage forms available; reviewing patient profiles for drug interactions, medication noncompliance and inappropriate drug therapy; and basic administrative skills.

Prerequisite: Passing all the PHA courses from the professional years 1 and 2

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA572 Professional Pharmacy Practice - Inpatient Care Experience

[0–12, 12 cr.]

Professional Pharmacy Practice-Inpatient Care Experiences allow students to learn and apply therapeutic problem-solving skills and knowledge of the appropriate use of medications in patient care environment: patient monitoring, therapeutic consultation, in-service presentation and communication with health care professionals and acute patient care rotations include Internal Medicine, Pediatrics and Critical Care.

Prerequisite: Passing all the PHA courses from the professional years 1 and 2

Co-requisite: Professional Year 3 status

PHA650A Academic Teaching

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that introduces Pharm.D. students to career of academia. The rotation will offer the student the opportunity to become actively involved in teaching, service and scholarship under the guidance and preceptorship of a pharmacy practice faculty member.

PHA650B Cardiology/Coronary Care Unit

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of cardiac conditions.

PHA650C Critical Care

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of critical care conditions.

PHA650E Emergency Medicine

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients  with a variety of emergency conditions.

PHA650F Endocrinology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of endocrinology conditions.

PHA650G Industrial Pharmacy

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE designed to provide pharmacy students interested in pursuing career in pharmaceutical industry exposure to various areas within the field.

PHA650H Infectious Diseases

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of infectious diseases conditions.

PHA650I Internal Medicine

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of internal medicine conditions.

PHA650J Patient/Medication Safety

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE in patient and medication safety that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to learn about and apply the key principles of medication safety in hospitals. Students will participate in medication use reviews, medication errors and adverse event reporting and analysis, identifying gaps in the medication use process, and implementing risk reduction strategies.

PHA650K Nephrology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients  with a variety of kidney diseases.

PHA650L Neurology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of neurological conditions.

PHA650M Obstetrics/Gynecology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of obstetrics and gynecological conditions. 

PHA650N Oncology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of cancer conditions.

PHA650O Pediatrics

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of pediatrics conditions.

PHA650P Primary Care

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This one month elective provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to implement and monitor treatment plans  in  the  primary  care  and/or  specialty  clinic  patient  care environments. Students are trained to formulate patient-centered pharmaceutical care plans of ambulatory related chronic diseases, in collaboration with other health care professionals, patients, and/or their caregivers.

PHA650Q Regulatory Affairs

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This one month elective APPE is designed to provide a well-rounded exposure to and grasp of the Lebanese governmental and legislative rules and regulations that govern medication registration, pricing, inspection processes of pharmaceutical establishments, controlled substances, pharmacy licensure of pharmaceutical establishments and pharmacists, and free distribution of medications to patients.

PHA650R Ambulatory Care (Makhzoumi Foundation)

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to implement and monitor cost effective drug therapy in primary care and/or specialty clinics with the opportunity for students to be involved in community-based health awareness projects.

PHA650S Internal Medicine / Hematology Oncology

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of internal medicine conditions with a focus on hematology and oncology.

PHA650T Internal Medicine / Infectious Diseases

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of internal medicine conditions with a focus on infectious diseases.

PHA650U Antimicrobial Stewardship

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of infectious diseases. Students will engage in patient-centered care, medication therapy and disease management, and collaboration with other health care providers. This will enhance their experience in interacting directly with patients and healthcare providers following the PPCP model.

 

PHA650V Geriatrics

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of geriatric conditions.

PHA650X Specialty Pharmacy

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a one-month exchange elective APPE that provides Pharm.D. students the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with rare and chronic conditions using biologics that are high-cost. Students will engage in patient-centered care, medication therapy and disease management, and collaboration with other health care providers. This will enhance their experience in interacting directly with patients and healthcare providers following the PPCP model.

PHA670 Ambulatory Care

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a required four-week APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to implement and monitor cost effective drug therapy for safety and efficacy in the primary care and/or specialty clinical patient care environment.

PHA671 Community Pharmacy

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a required four-week APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to learn about a variety of pharmaceutical care services. Emphasis is placed on enhancing communication skills with patients and health care professionals. Experiences include patient triage, disease state management, with a continuous focus on patient counseling, follow-up, and monitoring, as well as medication distribution activities.

PHA672 Hospital/Health System Pharmacy

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a required four-week APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to apply the principles of hospital pharmacy management rules and regulations, drug distribution systems, patient-oriented pharmacy services, as well as the principles of evidence based medicine.

PHA673 Inpatient/Acute Care General Medicine

[0–3, 3 cr.]

This is a required four-week APPE that provides Pharm.D. students with the opportunity to contribute to the care of patients with a variety of inpatient/acute care general medicine disease states.

PHA724 Ethics in Research

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course confronts the ethical issues for regulatory affairs professionals concerning evaluation, and defense of moral positions for use of laboratory animals, human subjects, patients, and consumers during research. It develops the student’s capacity to generalize, translate, and apply principles and ideas to modern biomedical practice. Topics include the treatment of animals, trial design, informed consent, the operation of institutional review boards, international clinical trials, clinical trials and vulnerable populations, and whistle blowing.

PHA725 Advanced Organizational Behavior

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course explores human behavior at the individual, group and organizational level. Topics include personality and values, attitudes and job satisfaction, perception and decision-making, motivation and reward systems, group behavior, organizational communication, organizational culture, organizational development, conflict, power and politics in organizations, and organizational change and stress management.

PHA726 Clinical Trials Design

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course examines the elements and issues in design, conduct and evaluation of drug, product, or device, undergoing human clinical trials by pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies, for their marketing approval. It begins with a “macro” view of clinical trials within corporate, legal, and regulatory environments and proceeds to each key element required to develop and execute a successful clinical development program.

PHA728 Project Management for Clinical Trials

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The pharma industry increasingly looks to project management to accelerate drug development, particularly the challenges posed by clinical research. Traditional project management needs augmentation by other management perspectives, including strategic, operational, organizational and financial analyses to meet these challenges. 

PHA730 Regulatory Affairs (including Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology and Device Industries)

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course provides foundational knowledge of pharmaceutical, biotechnological and medical device industries, cosmetics and food supplements, and the position and duties of the office of Regulatory Affairs an integral part of the organizational structure of these companies. This officeliaises at the interphase of drug development, manufacturing, marketing and clinical research and is the key interface between the company and the national, regional or international regulatory authorities. The course includes company organization and commercialization activities, e.g., drug discovery, chemical synthesis, product development, quality assurance, manufacturing, quality control and pharmacovigilance, clinical research, marketing and post-marketing surveillance. 

PHA732 Quality Control/Quality Assurance

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course will allow students to interpret and apply the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) to drug substance and drug product manufacture, differentiate between the “Full GMPs” required for commercial manufacturing and “Appropriate GMPs ” required for clinical supplies production; explore the differences between the US FDA and the European Union’s requirements for the manufacture and control of pharmaceuticals; understand quality and compliance function in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and current trends in industry; differentiate between quality control (QC) role vs. quality assurance (QA) role; explain Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs); use “Graded” approach to manufacture Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API’s), with focus on biologics and drugs; discuss medical device regulations, and aseptic processing; develop product specifications, write effective process deviations to be in compliance, and address out of specification results.

PHA734 Advanced Pharmacoeconomics

[3–0, 3 cr.]

Examine the economics of cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-minimization, cost-of-illness and cost-utility analyses to compare pharmaceutical products and treatment strategies. Evaluate the impact of this information on optimal allocation of limited resources, based on long-term benefits, and the impact on healthcare decision-makers. And, the role of pharmacoeconomics is examined as a consequence of cost-containment pressures on pharmaceutical industries; as part of decision processes at several stages of drug development and drug marketing and in terms of personnel and budget.

PHA735 Special Topics in Operations and Production management

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course introduces students to the concepts and quantitative methods for solving problems in manufacturing and service operations. It presents a systematic study of managerial and mathematical techniques for the production of goods and services .The course develops knowledge of resource planning. Topics include but are not limited to: Operations and supply chain management, process design, quality management, supply and demand planning, and scheduling. Student work focus on the application of these concepts to actual business situations.

PHA740 Special Topics in Pharmaceutical Science

[3–0, 3 cr.]

Topics will be offered on an annual basis offered by faculty experts in specified fields, or as requested by students.

PHA745 Special Topics in Innovation and Entrepreneurship

[3–0, 3 cr.]

This course exposes students to the latest research in entrepreneurship and its practical implications. Students will learn about the entrepreneurial process and the domain of entrepreneurship. Topical coverage includes an economic primer on entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial opportunity recognition and exploitation, environmental effects on entrepreneurial opportunities, as well as differences in identity, human and social capital of entrepreneurs. This course also provides insight on how entrepreneurs would finance and grow their business ventures. 

PHA752 Integrated Pharmaceutics/Biopharmaceutics: in Pharmaceutical Development/Formulation

[3–0, 3 cr.]

Integrates the biopharmaceutical and physical pharmaceutical properties of drug substances that influence in vivo drug absorption, such as salt selection, particle size optimization, solid state properties and polymorph formation, determining the development of stable, bioavailable and safely manufactured dosage forms. Integration of pharmaceutic, biopharmaceutic, and bioequivalence concepts into the design and manufacture of advanced formulations and complex dosage forms provides students with basic and advanced information concerning formulation, design, manufacture, and analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms. A brief discussion of business aspects is included, since cost drives the latter.

PHA754 Integrated Clinical Pharmacology: in Pharmaceutical Development

[3–0, 3 cr.]

A study of the physicochemical, physiological, and pharmaceutical factors affecting the absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs from the body.  The application of drug pharmacokinetic/dynamic principles to generics, biosimilars, therapeutic efficacy and bioequivalence testing, as well as drug delivery using carriers, drug metabolism and disposition, the effect of genetics, biomarkers, adverse reactions, and drug utilization is covered. 

PHA755 Management Theory

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course is an introduction to management, organizational behavior, development theories and practices, and emphasizes applications in managerial situations. Topics include goal setting, work force planning and control, motivational techniques, and problem-solving processes.

PHA756 Instrumental Methods: for Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Production

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course provides the student with the knowledge and practical skills necessary for the drug and excipient analysis of pharmaceutical products, during and subsequent to formulation and production. It prepares students with the expertise for the application, validation and quality assurance of analytical and production methods in pharmaceutical sciences.

PHA758 Biomanufacture: for Pharmaceutical Development of Drugs

[3–0, 3 cr.]

Designed to prepare student for careers in the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industries where microorganisms are tools for manufacturing chemical or biological drugs. Microbial fermentation produces recombinant proteins as drugs or industrial enzymes for the manufacture of antibodies and nucleic acids in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.  Drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry and the development of novel or cheaper industrial chemicals and reagents are unimaginable without utilizing microbial “chemical factories”. Business aspects will be included since cost drives the continuation of research.

PHA760 Biostatistics: in Pharmaceutical Development of Drugs

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course builds on the statistical skills established in pharmacy BS programs with testing hypothesis for single, two, and three or more groups. It prepares students to deal with multivariate analysis techniques starting with factorial ANOVA, ANCOVA, ANOVA with repeated measures. It also, addresses the linear regression model at the multivariate level addressing issue of modeling techniques, different types of SS, and ways to deal with statistical interaction and interpretation. It then focuses on frequency data and methods to analyze them at the bivariate and multivariate level including the logistic regression model. Last, it will provide theoretical and computer applications of SPSS, General Linear Model and the Generalized Estimation Equations, Factor analysis and scale related measurements (validity and reliability), and the Cox model for time to event modeling.

PHA765 Marketing Management

[3–0, 3 cr.]

The course presents strategic issues in marketing management. It will cover the long-term planning issues of segmentation, product positioning and competitive analysis. Student learning in the course will be experimental in nature, resulting from the student’s involvement with the cases presented as well as the lecture.

PHA798 Master Professional Project

[3–0, 3 cr.]

Student projects will be either thesis based laboratory or internship/professional project based and directed by a flexible committee comprised of LAU and LAU SOP faculty and adjunct faculty from Lebanese pharmaceutical and business corporations. The thesis will be laboratory science based and seeks to pursue novel scientific problems as a stand-alone project or part of a larger ongoing project. Literature based non-thesis professional projects will pursue literature research to solve novel problems consistent with the mentor’s and student’s interests. Projects will attain the highest level of intellectual rigor as possible and the thesis written in manuscript form for publication.   

PHA799 Master Research Thesis

[6–0, 6 cr.]

Student projects will be either thesis based laboratory or internship/professional project based and directed by a flexible committee comprised of LAU and LAU SOP faculty and adjunct faculty from Lebanese pharmaceutical and business corporations. The thesis will be laboratory science based and seeks to pursue novel scientific problems as a stand-alone project or part of a larger ongoing project. Literature based non-thesis professional projects will pursue literature research to solve novel problems consistent with the mentor’s and student’s interests. Projects will attain the highest level of intellectual rigor as possible and the thesis written in manuscript form for publication.